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Capparis spinosa L. // Infraspecifics: Capparis spinosa var. aegyptia (Lam.) Boiss., Capparis spinosa var. ovata (Desf.) Sm./ Heterotypic Synonyms:Capparis spinosa var. kruegeriana (Pamp.) Jafri , /// Infraspecifics: Capparis spinosa ssp. rupestris (Sm.) Nyman/ Heterotypic Synonyms: Capparis orientalis Veill. / Capparis spinosa ssp. orientalis (Veill.) Jafri,  Capparis spinosa var. inermis (Knoche) Zohary, it is a shrubs, prostrate or hanging, 50-80(-100) cm tall. Twigs glabrous to densely long or shortly white pubescent with simple trichomes, soon glabrescent. Stipular spines 4-5 mm, ± flat, apex recurved. Petiole 1-4 mm; leaf blade ovate, obovate, broadly elliptic, or suborbicular, 1.3-3 × 1.2-2 cm, 1-1.7 × as long as wide., Life Form: H,   Flowering in: Apr-Jun,   Vern: Kabbar ,   Phytochoria: MED+SA+IT, The native range of this species is Medit. to Mongolia and Indian Subcontinent, Philippines to W. & S. Pacific.,  Notes: Wild in Libya, Endangered Plant in Libya. medical uses and food

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Distribution in Libya
Zliten-Misurata Plain Benghazi Plain Jabal Nafusa
Leptus Megna 2004  Misurata 2015 Msus-Al-Ajramia zone 2004 Abogilan 1972 El-Rhebat, Yefren, Jado, Wadi Boraghwa, Cabaw, Yefren, wadi, (2,5 km) from Yefren 1974 Wadi Malah, Gharian, (10 km) from Nalut 1975   Msallata (Shaafeen) 2008   Msallata National Park (Shaafeen) 2013   Al-Assaba 2018   Msallata-Garaboulli Province 2020   Gharyan (Sedrores Mountains) 2020
Al-Jabal Al-Akhder Marmarica Plateau Ghadames area
(4 km) E. of El Merj 1967 Gebel Akhder, a deep Wadi, (15 km) E. of Susa, Wadi Derna 1968  Susa, Baida, Shahat 1975  Wadi Al-Agar 1999  Wadi Zaza 2003  Wadi (Valley) Stowah region 2007  Gebel Akhder 2009  Qandulah, Al-Marj-Al-Baida motorway 2011  S.AL-Marj 2011  Wadi El-Shees 2014  Wadi El-kuf 2014  Wadi El-Kouf 2016   Shahat old city 2017  Wadi Zaza, Wadi Al-Agar, Wadi Ras Al-Hilal 2017   Wadi Om-El-Amaym 2019  Ain Mara 2020  Wadi Al-Kouf 2021   Al-Jabal Al-Akhdar 2021 Reported from Tobruk by Maire , Reported in Marmarica north-eastern part of Libya by Pampanini 1930  From Tobruk to Egyptian Border 1999   Marmarica (north-eastern part of Libya) 2002   Al-Makhili 2007  Dafna region (Tobruk to Msaid) 2008


Derj, (204 km) from Nalut- Ghadmes road 1975



Bibliographic references:  
First: Encyclopedia Flora of Libyan:  
Ali, S.I. & Jafri, S.M.H. (1977) Flora of Libya, Capparaceae Vol. (12) Department of Botany, Al-Faateh Univ., Tripoli, Libya.
Second: Researches and PhD theses, master theses , Sorted by Newest: pdf files
Al-Traboulsi, M. & Alaib, M.A. (2021) A Survey of medicinal plants of Wadi Al-Kouf in Al-Jabal Al-Akhdar, Libya. NAT. CROAT, VOL. 30. No 2. (389-404), ZAGREB. December 31, 2021. / Medicinal plants of Wadi Al-Kouf 2021
Mohamed, A.H., Mosallam, H.A., Sergwa, S.S., Gibreel, M.A. (2021) Impact of Edaphic Factors on Vegetation Composition in Al-Jabal Al-Akhdar, Libya. Egypt. J. Bot., Vol. 61, No. 1, pp. 191-201 (2021) Impact of Edaphic Factors 2021_compressed
Saaed, M.W.B., EL-Barasi, Y.M. & Rahil, R.O. (2021) An updated checklist and quantitative analysis of the Marmarica Plateau flora, in the north-eastern part of Libya. Phytotaxa 509 (1): 001-055., An updated Marmarica Plateau flora 2021
Al-Maqsabi, F. M. & Makhlouf, M. A. (2020) Vegetation cover in the Ain Mara region, Al-Jabal Al-Akhdar region – Libya. The Libyan Journal of Science (An International Journal): Volume 23, 2020. (In Arabic), Vegetation Cover of Ain Mara 2020
El-Ahmir, S.M., Mahklouf, M.H., Shanta, M.B., Abo-Jaafer, H.A. (2020) Floristic Study of Sedrores Mountains in Gharyan District-Libya. J. of Advanced Botany and Zoology. Volume 8 / Issue 1. ISSN: 2348-7313., Sedrores Mountains in Gharyan 2020
Mahklouf, M.H., Sherif, A.S., Betelmal, A.G. (2020) Floristic Study and Species Diversity of Msallata-Garaboulli Province in Libya. J. of Advanced Botany and Zoology Volume 7 / Issue 3 ISSN: 2348-7313. Journal homepage:, Msallata-Garaboulli Province in Libya 2020
El-farse, M.H. (2019) Study of the vegetation of Wadi Om-El-Amaym in Al-Jabal Al-Akhdar region. Master Thesis- department of environmental science and engineering, Academy of post graduate studies, Benghazi, Libya. (In Arabic)  
Al-Dayek, J.H. G. (2018) Inventory of the perennial and prevalent vegetation cover in the Al-Assaba mountain region. The fifth Scientific Conference of Environment and Sustainable Development in the Arid and Semi-Arid Regions (ICESD) – From 23-25. July-2018. Ajdabiya-Libya. (In Arabic)   
Abusaief, H.M.A. & Alwishish, F.M. (2017) Survey of endangered plants and description the seeds in some sites at Al-JabalAl-Akhdar of Libya. Curr. Sci. Int., 6 (3): 511-539, 2017 ISSN 2077-4435. Endangered plants at Al-JabalAl-Akhdar 2017
Mukassabi, T.A., Thomas,P.A., ELMogasapi, A.(2017) Medicinal plants in Cyrenaica, Libya: existence and extinction. Biological Diversity and Conservation – 10/2 (2017) 183-192. Medicinal plants in Cyrenaica 2017
Hegazy, A.; Kabiel, H.; AlRowaily, S.; Lovett-Doust,L. and AlBorki, A. (2016) Plant communities and reproductive phenology in mountainous regions of northern Libya. Journal of  Forestry Research. July 2017, Volume 28, Issue 4, pp 741–761.,  
Aljarroushi, M.M. & Almedham, K.E. (2015) Natural plant cover composition in Misurata area, Libya. Assiut Journal for Environmental Studies-42nd issue-July 2015. (In Arabic)  
El-Mokasabi, F M. (2014) Floristic Composition and Traditional Uses of Plant Species at Wadi Al-kuf, Al-Jabal Al-Akhder, Libya. American-Eurasian J. Agric. & Environ. Sci., 14 (8): 685-697, 2014, ISSN 1818-769,IDOSI Publications,2014 DOI:10.5829/idosi.aejaes.2014.14.08.12375. Plant Species at Wadi Al-kuf 2014
Shaltout ,K, Fawzy,M., Galal T., Awad M., El-Barasi Y., Saeed, B. (2014) Impact of waste water discharge on the plant communities and size structure of Wadi El-Shees, Al-Jabal Al-Akhdar, Libya. FeddesRepertorium2014, 125, 1-13 DOI: 10.1002/fedr.201400023 Wadi El-Shees 2014
Al-Masalati, N. A. A. (2013) Plant diversity across the altitudes of the Msallata National Park Reserve Mountains. Master Thesis. Botany Department-College of Science-University of Benghazi-Libya. (In Arabic)  
EL-Barasi, Y. M., Barrani, M. W., Abdelsalam, O. EL-Amrouni, N., Mohamad, F. (2011) Check list of flora and vegetation on south EL-Marj zone: south EL-Jabal EL-Akhadar. Libya. Annals of Faculty Engineering Hunedoara-International Journal of Engineering. Tome IX (Year 2011). Fascicule 3. ISSN 1584-2673, 141-146. flora and vegetation on south EL-Marj zone 2011
Hegazyi, A.K., Boulos, L., Kabiel, H.F. and Sharashy, O.S. (2011) Vegetaion and species altitudinal distribution in Al-Jabal Al-Akhdar landscape, Libya. Pak. J. Bot., 43(4): 1885-1898, 2011. Vegetaion in Al-Jabal Al-Akhdar landscape 2011
El-Darier, S.M. & El-Mogaspi, F.M. (2009) Ethno botany and Relative Importance of Some Endemic Plant Species at El-Jabal El-Akhdar Region (Libya). World Journal of Agricultural Sciences 5 (3): 353-360, 2009 ISSN 1817-3047, IDOSI Publications, 2009. Endemic Plant Species at El-Jabal El-Akhdar 2009
Barrani, M. W. (2008) A study of environmental degradation factors in the semi-desert Dafna region-Libya. Master Thesis-Department of Science and environmental engineering-Postgraduate Academy Benghazi branch. (In Arabic)  
Mohammed, S.A.H. (2008) A taxonomic and ecological study of the plants of the Shaafin Reserve in Masalatah. Master Thesis. Department of Biology-Faculty of Arts and Sciences-Al-Mirqab University. Al-Khums. Libya. (In Arabic)  
Atet Allah, E.H., Alfitory, M.Y., Khaled, S.A., Mohammed, S.K, Hasan, A.A. (2007) Adaptation of some plant communities Halophytes and Xerophytes in East Libya.. Al-Mukhtar for Science, Issue Sixteen, 2007 (In Arabic) 2007 النباتات الملحيه في شرق ليبيا
Nawras, A. M. B. (2007) A study of the vegetation cover in the Wadi (Valley) Stowah region. Master Thesis. Botany Department-Faculty of Science-Garyounis University-Libya. (In Arabic)  
El-Komati, A. F. (2004) Medicinal plants in the Shapiat of Marqab, their distribution, classification and importance. Master Thesis. Biology Department- Faculty of Science-Al-Marqab University. Al-Khums. Libya. (In Arabic)  
El-Jetlawi A.O.(2004) Study of vegetation and soil seed bank of a range desert zone (Msus-Al-Ajramia), Master of Science Thesis, Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Benghazi University, Benghazi, Libya (In Arabic)  
El-Barasi, Y. M., EI-Sherif, l. M. & Gawhari, A. M. H.(2003) Checklist and analysis of the flora and vegetation of Wadi Zaza at AI-Jabal AI Akhdar (Cyrenaica, Libya). Bocconea 16 (2): 1091-1105. 2003. – ISSN 1120-4060.  , flora and vegetation of Wadi Zaza 2003_compressed
El-Shaary M.S. (2002). The Natural Vegetation in Marmarica plateau (North-eastern Libya). First ed. Tobruk (Libya): Published by the local Authority. (In Arabic)  
Al-Hamadi R.I.(1999) Floristic and ecological study of Wadi Al-Agar, Master Thesis, Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Botany Department-Faculty of Science-Garyounis University, Benghazi, Libya. (In Arabic)  
EL-Habony, A.M. (1999) Vegetation and flora of a sector along Mediterranean cost of Libya from Tobruk to Egyptian border, M.Sc. Thesis, Botany Department-Faculty of Science-Garyounis University, Benghazi, Libya. (in Arabic)