Skip to content
Juncus maritimus Lam. / Immediate children: Juncus maritimus var. maritimus,  it is a perennial plant reaching 1 meter, glabrous, with creeping rhizomes; stems stiff, in tufts, bare, full, the sterile prickly. Leaves all radical, few in number, almost equal to the stems, erect, cylindrical, and prickly. Inflorescence many-flowered, usually lax; first bract long, forming an apparent prolongation of the stem, the second usually short. Perianth-segments unequal; outer ovate, more or less boat-shaped, acute, shortly mucronate; inner shorter, narrowly elliptical, obtuse, without auricles. Stamens c. 2/3 as long as perianth; anthers about twice as long as filaments. Capsule 2.5-3.5 mm, trigonous-ovoid, obtuse or subacute, mucronate, equaling or slightly exceeding the perianth. Seeds 0.8-1.2 mm.  Life Form: H,   Flowering in: Jun-Seb,   Vern:————-,   Phytochoria: ES+IT, The native range of this species is Azores, Europe to Central Asia.   Notes: Wild in Libya.

For more information:,,,,,,,,,,


Distribution in Libya
Al-Jafarah Plain Zliten-Misurata Plain Benghazi Plain
Tripoli-Gharian road in strem beds 1969  Mallaha Wetland Tripoli 2016  Coastal of Tripoli 2020 Kaam area 2005  Misurata 2015  Beach sand dunes in Karkurah 2021
Al-Jabal Al-Akhder Marmarica Plateau Al-Qibla area
From Nuqrat Said to Wadi Al-Zagzoog 2019 Reported in Marmarica north-eastern part of Libya by Pampanini 1930  Marmarica (north-eastern part of Libya) 2002  Dafna region (Tobruk to Msaid) 2008  Wadis South of Mizda 2013
Ghat area  Jabal Al-Uwinat
Ghat, Barkat 1976  Ghat (Between Acacus and Tassili Mountains) 2004 Wadi Tanezzuft 2012 Jabal Al-Uweinat region 2008


Bibliographic references:  
First: Encyclopedia Flora of Libyan:  
Jafri, S.M.H. & El-Gadi, A. (1977) Flora of Libya, Juncaceae   Vol.  (29) Department of Botany, Al-Faateh Univ., Tripoli, Libya.
Second: Researches and PhD theses, master theses, Sorted by Newest: pdf files
Alteerah, M.A., El-Barasi, Y.M., Ali Alwerfally, A. (2021) Vegetation cover composition and seed bank study of beach sand dunes in Karkurah coastal area, east of Libya. Sustainability, Agri, Food and Environmental Research. , Karkurah coastal area 2021
Saaed, M.W.B., EL-Barasi, Y.M. & Rahil, R.O. (2021) An updated checklist and quantitative analysis of the Marmarica Plateau flora, in the north-eastern part of Libya. Phytotaxa 509 (1): 001-055., An updated Marmarica Plateau flora 2021
Mahklouf, M.H. (2020) Biodiversity of the coastal flora of Tripoli Province. Biodiv. Res. Conserv. 58: 13-19, 2020. BRC,,9131 coastal flora of Tripoli 2020
Ali, A. M., Lashhab, S. R., Abu-Aweena, A. A.M. (2019) Classification of vegetation cover and its geographical distribution in the area extending between Al-Haniya and Wadi Zagzoog in the north to Lasastata and Bishtaya in the south. Al-Jabal Al-Akhdar eastern Libya. Issue (61) Journal of Science and Human Studies- Al-Marj-University of Benghazi-Libya (In Arabic),  
Mahklouf, M.H. & Al-Sghair, F.G. (2016) Floristic and Inventory Study of Mallaha Wetland Tripoli – Libya. American Journal of Life Science Researches, Oct 2016, Volume 4, Issue 4.PP(119-123), Mallaha Wetland 2016
Aljarroushi, M.M. & Almedham, K.E. (2015) Natural plant cover composition in Misurata area, Libya. Assiut Journal for Environmental Studies-42nd issue-July 2015. (In Arabic)  
Mohamed, F.J. (2013) A Taxonomic Study of Wadis Flora South of Mizda at the intersections with Mizda-Sebha Highway. Master Thesis. Department of Botany-Faculty of Science-Sebha University. Libya. (In Arabic)  
Mukassabi, T.A, Ahmidat, G., Sherif, I.M., ELMogasapi, A.(2012) Checklist and life forms of plant species in contrasting climatic zones of Libya. Biological Diversity and Conservation – 5 / 3 (2012), plant species in contrasting climatic zones of Libya 2012
Alzwai, A.M.H. (2008) A study of the vegetation covers of the Jabal Al-Uweinat region in Libya. Master Thesis – Botany Department – College of Science – Garyounis University – Libya. (In Arabic)  
Barrani, M. W. (2008) A study of environmental degradation factors in the semi-desert Dafna region-Libya. Master Thesis-Department of Science and environmental engineering-Postgraduate Academy Benghazi branch. (In Arabic)
Al-Shf, N. S. (2005) a taxonomic study of the plants of the Kaam region. Master Thesis, College of Science, Al-Marqab University, Al-Khums, Libya. (In Arabic)  
Ahmidat, Gh. (2004) Study of the vegetation cover of the area between the Acacus Mountains and the Tassili Mountains (Ghat). Master Thesis. Department of Botany.College of Science. Sebha University. Libya. (In Arabic)  
El-Shaary M.S. (2002). The Natural Vegetation in Marmarica plateau (North-eastern Libya). First ed. Tobruk (Libya): Published by the local Authority. (In Arabic)