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Juniperus phoenicea L.// Immediate children: Juniperus phoenicea ssp. turbinata (Guss.) Nyman,   it is a monoecious   evergreen shrubs or trees,  up to 8 m tall. Bark on older trees brown, exfoliating in strips. Twigs 1 mm diameter, round, scaly, leaves both whip and scale-like. Whip leaves on juvenile plants, 5-14 × 0.5-1 mm, acute mucronate, with two stomatal bands on both adaxial and abaxial surfaces. Scale leaves on adult plants 0.7-1 mm long, ovate-rhombic, closely appressed, obtuse to somewhat acute, with an oblong furrowed gland and a scarious border. Seed cones 5-9 mm diameter, ripening in the 2nd year, globose to ovoid, changing from blackish to green or yellowish, sometimes slightly pruinose; dark red at maturity. Seeds (3-)7-9(-13) per cone.  Pollen shed February-March  Life Form: Ph,   Flowering in: Mar-Apr,   Vern: Arar,   Phytochoria: MED, The native range of this species is SE. & E. Spain and NW. Italy, Corse (SW. Mallorca), E. Sardegna.   Notes: Wild in Libya, medicinal plant, Endangered Plant in Libya.

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Distribution in Libya
Benghazi Plain Jabal Nafusa Al-Jabal Al-Akhder
Wadi El-Ghattara 2010   Between Slouk and Al-Abiar 2016 Sharshara 1978  Msallata (Shaafeen) 2008  Msallata National Park (Shaafeen) 2013  Msallata-Garaboulli Province 2020 Susa 1919  Wadi Lathrun, Gubba, Massa 1934  Wadi El-Kauf 1937  Wadi El-Tair, (15 km) E. of Al-Marj to Baida, (24 km) W. Derna to Susa 1967  Wadi Mahbool 1973 Shahat 1977  Gasr Libya 1980  Wadi El-Kauf 1982,1985  Wadi El-Kauf to Baida, Wadi Qolaa, El-Fatiah to Derna 1985  El-Kauf area 1984  Wadi Al-Agar 1999 Wadi Zaza 2003  El-Hamamah to Biada 2003  El-Bakur 2007  Wadi (Valley) Stowah region 2007  S. AL-Marj 2011  Al-Dercya, Wadi El-Akar, Shahat, El Fadil Abou Omar, Wadi Algharega, Slonta, Qandulah, Al-Marj-Al-Baida motorway, Wadi El-Kouf 2011   Al-Mansora 2013  Valley Jarjr-oma 2013  Wadi El-Kouf 2014  Between Labrag and Shahat 2014  Wadi Haboon 2015  Wadi Belkaf-Bata 2016  Slonta,Wadi El-Agar 2016   Susah, Shahat, Sidi Ahmad Al-Hemery, Al-Marj-Al-Baida motorway, El-Beida (Belghra), Wadi El-Kouf  2017  Wadi Jarjar oma, Al-Mnsora 2017   Wadi Derna 2017   Assdod, Wadi Balarid, Wadi Butuma, Al-Tayes, Wadi Al-Aesh, Wadi Kaab 2018   Wadi Om-El-Amaym 2019   From Nuqrat Said to Wadi Al-Zagzoog, From Zawiet Tamula to Al-Manarh, From Lustata to Beshtaya 2019   Al-Abiar (Sidi Amohamed forest) 2020   Al-Teneen area northwest of Al-Marj 2020  Ain Mara 2020  Wadi Al-Kouf 2021   Al-Mansura to Settia 2021   Al-Jabal Al-Akhdar 2021
Marmarica Plateau
Marmarica-north-eastern part of Libya 2004


Bibliographic references:  
First: Encyclopedia Flora of Libyan:  
Jafri, S.M.H. & EL-TAIFE (1986) Flora of Libya, Cupressaceae Vol.  (152)  Department of Botany, Al-Faateh Univ., Tripoli, Libya.
Second: Researches and PhD theses, master theses , Sorted by Newest: pdf files
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Al-Traboulsi, M. & Alaib, M.A. (2021) A Survey of medicinal plants of Wadi Al-Kouf in Al-Jabal Al-Akhdar, Libya. NAT. CROAT, VOL. 30. No 2. (389-404), ZAGREB. December 31, 2021. / Medicinal plants of Wadi Al-Kouf 2021
Mohamed, A.H., Mosallam, H.A., Sergwa, S.S., Gibreel, M.A. (2021) Impact of Edaphic Factors on Vegetation Composition in Al-Jabal Al-Akhdar, Libya. Egypt. J. Bot., Vol. 61, No. 1, pp. 191-201 (2021) Impact of Edaphic Factors 2021_compressed
Saaed, M.W.B., EL-Barasi, Y.M. & Rahil, R.O. (2021) An updated checklist and quantitative analysis of the Marmarica Plateau flora, in the north-eastern part of Libya. Phytotaxa 509 (1): 001-055., An updated Marmarica Plateau flora 2021
Al-Amrouni, M,M., Al-Zarbi, A., Al-Aeb, M. A. (2020) Study of vegetation cover in Sidi Amohamed forest north of the city of Al-Abyar in the Al-Jabal Al-Al-Akhdar. Libya. Journal of Quality Assurance for Scientific Research-The first issue-April-2020 (In Arabic)., غابة سيدي أمحمد شمال مدينة الابيار2020
Al-Maqsabi, F. M. & Makhlouf, M. A. (2020) Vegetation cover in the Ain Mara region, Al-Jabal Al-Akhdar region – Libya. The Libyan Journal of Science (An International Journal): Volume 23, 2020. (In Arabic), Vegetation Cover of Ain Mara 2020
Mahklouf, M.H., Sherif, A.S., Betelmal, A.G. (2020) Floristic Study and Species Diversity of Msallata-Garaboulli Province in Libya. J. of Advanced Botany and Zoology Volume 7 / Issue 3 ISSN: 2348-7313. Journal homepage:,, Msallata-Garaboulli Province in Libya 2020
Saleh, M. M., & Lachhab, S. R. (2020) Plant diversity in Al-Teneen area northwest of Al-Marj city-Libya. Aref Journal for Human Studies- Issue (5) 2020, Pp. (3-65) Ajdabiya University-Libya. (In Arabic) نباتات منطقة التنين 2020_compressed
Ali, A. M., Lashhab, S. R., Abu-Aweena, A. A.M. (2019) Classification of vegetation cover and its geographical distribution in the area extending between Al-Haniya and Wadi Zagzoog in the north to Lasastata and Bishtaya in the south. Al-Jabal Al-Akhdar eastern Libya. Issue (61) Journal of Science and Human Studies- Al-Marj-University of Benghazi-Libya (In Arabic),  
El-farse, M.H. (2019) Study of the vegetation of Wadi Om-El-Amaym in Al-Jabal Al-Akhdar region. Master Thesis- department of environmental science and engineering, Academy of post graduate studies, Benghazi, Libya. (In Arabic)  
Mubarak, A. M.A., Lashhab, S. R. H. (2018) Charcoal manufacturing and its impact on the deterioration of vegetation cover in the area between Merad Massoud and Asdos in Al Jabal Al Akhdar-eastern Libya. Journal of Science and Human Studies-Al-Marj-Issue 58 – 15 / November 2018. التفحيم واثرة على الغطاء النباتي2018
Ab-AzizaF.B., ElBarasi, Y.M. and Rahil, R.O. (2017) Flora, Vegetation and Human Activities of Wadi Derna-El-JabalResearch article I Botany l Version 1., Vegetation Wadi Derna  2017
Dakeel, E. H., Alaib, M. A., & Asker, A. M. (2017). Comparative Study of Medicinal Plants in Al Mansora and Jarjar oma, Al Jabal Al Akhdar, Libya [Version 1; awaiting peer review]. Control, 1, 4., Medicinal Plants in Al Mansora and Jarjar oma 2017
Mosallam, H.A., Mohamed, A.H., Sergiwa S.S, Gibreel, M.A (2017). Size distribution of some endangered plant species, Al-Jabal Al-Akhdar, Libya. Egypt. J. Bot., Vol. 57, No, 1. Pp.181-197 (2017) Endangered Plant Species, Al-Jabal Al-Akhdar 2017
Al-Aib, M.A., Elbakkosh, A.M., Ali, Y.B., Gadelmola, A.S., Elmhafdi, A.M. (2016) Preliminary Investigation of the Vegetation of Wadi Belkaf-Bata Al-Jabal Al-Akhdar-Libya. Libyan Journal of Basic Science (LJBS) Vol: 4, No: 1, PP: 20-27., 2016. Wadi Belkaf- Bata Al-Jabal Al-Akhdar 2016
Hegazy, A.; Kabiel, H.; AlRowaily, S.; Lovett-Doust, L. and AlBorki, A. (2016) Plant communities and reproductive phenology in mountainous regions of northern Libya. Journal of Forestry Research. July 2017, Volume 28, Issue4, pp 741-761|.  
Raheel, RO. M., El-Borasi, Y. M., El-Barrani, M. W., El-Hassi, S. (2016) Study of Flora and vegetation cover of the semi-desert area between Salouq and Al-Abyar-the first high of Jabal Al-Akhdar-Libya, Fourth Scientific Conference for Environment and Sustainable Development In dry and semi-arid areas. Ajdabia. Libya. (In Arabic) , between Salouq and Al-Abyar 2016
El-Rabiai, G.T. & Al tira, M. (2015) Checklist of the Flora of Wadi Haboon at AI Jabal AI Akhdar (Cyrenaica, Libya). International Journal of Pharmacy & Life Sciences 6(8-9): Aug-Sep, 2015:4661-4665] Coden (USA): IJPLCP ISSN: 0976-7126 Wadi Haboon at AI Jabal AI Akhdar 2015
Ahmed, H. M. (2014) Assessment of natural vegetation in the area between Abraq and Shahat in the south and the coastline in the north. Journal of Science and Human Studies-Al-Marj. Issue 4-ISSN: 2312-4962 Benghazi University. (In Arabic), الغطاء النباتي شحات الابرق_compressed
El-Mokasabi, F M. (2014) Floristic Composition and Traditional Uses of Plant Species at Wadi Al-kuf, Al-Jabal Al-Akhder, Libya. American-Eurasian J. Agric. & Environ. Sci., 14 (8): 685-697, 2014, ISSN 1818-769,IDOSI Publications,2014DOI:10.5829/idosi.aejaes.2014.14.08.12375. Plant Species at Wadi Al-kuf 2014
Abusaief, H. M. A. (2013) Life forms and rangeland for many habitats of Jarjar oma in Al-Jabal Al- Akhdar on Mediterranean Sea. Journal of American Science 2013;9(5) Jarjar oma in Al-Jabal Al- Akhdar 2013
Abusaief, H. M. A. and Dakhil, A. H. (2013) The floristic composition of Rocky habitat of Al Mansora in Al-Jabal Al-Akhdar- Libya. New York Science Journal 2013; 6(5). Al Mansora in Al-Jabal Al-Akhdar 2013
Al-Masalati, N. A. A. (2013) Plant diversity across the altitudes of the Msallata National Park Reserve Mountains. Master Thesis. Botany Department-College of Science-University of Benghazi-Libya. (In Arabic)  
EL-Barasi, Y. M., Barrani, M. W., Abdelsalam, O. EL-Amrouni, N., Mohamad, F. (2011) Check list of flora and vegetation on south EL-Marj zone: south EL-Jabal EL-Akhadar. Libya. Annals of Faculty Engineering Hunedoara-International Journal of Engineering. Tome IX (Year 2011). Fascicule 3. ISSN 1584-2673, 141-146. flora and vegetation on south EL-Marj zone 2011
Hegazyi, A.K., Boulos, L., Kabiel, H.F. and Sharashy, O.S. (2011) Vegetaion and species altitudinal distribution in Al-Jabal Al-Akhdar landscape, Libya. Pak. J. Bot., 43(4): 1885-1898, 2011. Vegetaion in Al-Jabal Al-Akhdar landscape 2011
El-Rabiai, G.T., Al tira, F.M., Lamlom, S.H. (2010) Preliminary Checklist for the Flora of Wadi El Ghattara in Libya. Garyounis University Press Journal of Science and Its Applications Vol. 4, No. 1, pp 39-47, December 2010. Flora of Wadi El Ghattara 2010
Mohammed, S.A.H. (2008) A taxonomic and ecological study of the plants of the Shaafin Reserve in Masalatah. Master Thesis. Department of Biology-Faculty of Arts and Sciences-Al-Mirqab University. Al-Khums. Libya. (In Arabic)  
Abd Al-lkhaleq, Y. M. (2007) Vegetation Coverage of El-Bakur Highlands in Al-Jabal Al-Akhdar. Master Thesis, Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, Garyounis University, Libya. (In Arabic)  
Nawras, A. M. B. (2007) A study of the vegetation cover in the Wadi (Valley) Stowah region. Master Thesis. Botany Department-Faculty of Science-Garyounis University-Libya. (In Arabic)  
Le Houerou H.N. (2004) Plant diversity in Marmarica (Libya and Egypt). A catalogue of the vascular plants reported with their biology, distribution, frequency, usage, economic potential, habitat, and main ecological features, with an extensive bibliography. Candollea. 59:259–308.  
Al-Sodany, Y. M., Shehata, M. N. & Shaltout, K. H. (2003): Vegetation along an elevation gradient in Al-Jabal Al-Akhdar, Libya. ecologia mediterranea, tome 29, fascicule 2, 2003, p. 125-138., Vegetation an elevation in Al-Jabal Al-Akhdar 2003
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Al-Hamadi R.I.(1999) Floristic and ecological study of Wadi Al-Agar, Master Thesis, Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Botany Department-Faculty of Science-Garyounis University, Benghazi, Libya. (In Arabic)  
ACSAD (1984) Wadi Al-Kouf National Park Studies Project. Arab Center for the Studies of Arid Zones and Dry Lands.